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初三英语写作教学探索

发布时间:2020年06月18日 来源:招生考试报

成都七中(高新校区) 严丽莉

 在现今英语听、看五个语言技能的训练中,学生可能感觉最吃力最困难的是写

 由于阶段的教学中没有单独开设英语写作训练课,很多教师对写作教学不太重视,因此,同学们在、初期间没有得到系统作文练习,到了三,面对大大小小的各类考试,只能突击一些常用的作文词汇及高级表达,死记硬背所谓的优秀范文,其中也不乏一些老师会花大量的时间反复进行写作评讲,但这些种种做法都收效甚微,面对新的写作题目时,学生们仍会感觉力不从心,无从下笔。

 其实,三学生书面表达普遍存在的问题主要分为思维层面和语言层面的,思维层面主要反映在思维混乱缺乏逻辑缺乏篇章意识或者写作空洞,无话可说。语言层面主要反映在词汇驾驭不熟,句型使用错误,表达严重,所以导致词汇句式单一, 表达缺乏亮点

 针对学生这些问题,我们老师尝试了在学生写作过程中给予具体地指导,效果明显,在此分享如下 

 一、准确审题

 当学生拿到一作文题目首先应当要学会如何做到正确审题。

 第一步,学生要明白what to write具体就是要读透写作指令语,准确解读出该书面表达的显性要点和隐性要点

 第二步学生要明白whom to write to, 即明确写作对象,采用哪种得体的语言进行写作

 第三步是how to write,即如何运用恰当语句进行符合逻辑表达。

 这三步概括起来就是审题,语气和组织。如果要更具体地理解这三步,审题就包括:What is the task? What is the purpose? What is the message? 审语气就包括:Who am I? Who is the reader? 组织语言就包括:How to address my readers? How to organize the message? How to connect the given part?

 只有当学生在面对一篇作文题目,认真做到这几个方面恰当到位的分析才能写出一篇高质量的作文。但是在近年来的书信文体考查中,很多学生容易忽略掉前面两步当中的某些细节。

 下面具体用一篇学生习作来说明

  试题要求:假定你是校学生会主席李华,你校近日将举行中国传统文化节系列活动,请你给外教Mr. Smith 写一封电子邮件,邀请他参加,邮件内容:

1. 活动目的、时间、地点及参加人员;

2. 活动内容(如中国传统书画展、古诗词诵读、京剧表演等)

Mr. Smith:

  I’m Li hua, the chairman of student union. On the Monday morning, in order to develop and expand Chinese traditional culture, we will conduct a range of events about Chinese traditional culture festival, which all the students will take part in. We also will decorate the library in advance to make a good atmosphere. This activity include: Chinese traditional calligraphy and painting, exhibition, Peking opera performance, ancient poetry reading and so on. Each part all has wonderful performance and enjoys historical cultural deposits.

 Hope you can join us

 这位学生只看到了作文题目的显性要点,但是忽略了审语气,即whom to write to , 这封写给外教老师的邀请只在最后写了一句Hope you can join us.另外We also will decorate the library in advance to make a good atmosphere. 这句话几乎跟内容没有什么关系, 对于what to write 审的也不够准确。

  我们再看下面这篇作文题目:

 假如你是校英语俱乐部主席李华。俱乐部计划下月开展 “英语好书推荐”活动。请根据以下要点写一则通知,欢迎同学们踊跃投稿推荐好书

  1. 活动目的;

  2. 参与要求(稿件内容、 截止时间);

  3. 投稿邮箱:bookrecommendation@sina.com

 这篇作文的第一段是比较难写的,除了告知活动内容及目的,很多学生对于如何让语言更丰富更召力感到难度很大。让我们来对比三位同学所写的第一段:

 学生AOur English club plans to hold an activity called “English Book Recommendation” next month, which can make more students notice the great books.

 学生BWith the purpose of promoting the atmosphere of book reading, our English club decides to hold an activity called Book Recommendation, which would be a perfect platform to join the English lovers together.  So why don’t you join us and share your favorite English book?

 学生CAs the famous saying goes, books are the ladder of human progress. To arouse the interest in reading and strengthen English reading ability, an activity called Book Recommendation will be organized by our English club next month. Whoever has an interest in English reading can recommend the book that is his favorite of all.

 A同学只能基本传达作文题目的含义,其语言没能让全校同学感受到有参与活动的热情。而B同学和C同学除了交代what to write的要点,还适当的补充了supporting details,对于whom to write to , 语言拿捏的很恰当,对于how to write运用了丰富句型来表达,他们的语言实现了调动全校学生积极参与的目的。

 当然,学生的语言表达能有不断进步,一定离不了平时对写作的不断训练。尤其是语言的微技能训练,它是无处不在的。

   二、微技能训练

  1. 词汇  

 The delivery service is currently bringing tremendous benefits and convenience, saving enormous time and trouble for us. However, considerable problems also arise from the prosperity of it. Particularly, recent years have witnessed the sharp increase of the traffic accidents involving the deliver workers. They are reported to have been injured or even killed in the traffic accidents. For one thing, the rise of the accidents is largely due to the growing demand for the delivery service.

  2. 句型

  1词汇衔接

  Tim used to stay up late watching TV, so his study suffered.

  Tim’s study suffered because / since /as he always stayed up late watching TV.

  Due to his staying up late watching TV every night, Tim’s study suffered.

  2) 非谓语衔接

  Always staying up late watching TV, Tim lagged far behind his classmates.

  3) 从句衔接

  Tim used to stay up late watching TV, which led his study to decline sharply.

  3. 语法

  You’re expected to be punctual, for it’s one of the Chinese virtues.

  Now that you’re interested in our traditional culture, why not join in the activity?

  We decided to go to the beach since it was a nice day.

  The elderly are keen on practicing Tai chi, as it is believed to do good to their health.

  Considering that you are just a beginner, you might as well make some preparations.

  If I were you, I would choose some tea or wine, which are often popularly served in China.

  Chengdu is home to many places of interest, the most famous of which is Du Fu Thatched Cottage.

  It’s a key to knowing about Chinese culture, by which you can broaden your horizons and gain wisdom.

  When it comes to taking courses concerning Chinese traditional culture, there are many options, among which paper cutting is highly recommended.

   三、改写练习训练

 很多学生面对一篇作文题目,没有养成先打草稿,再修改誊抄的习惯,甚至根本没有意识自己通过可以通过改写练习来提高英语写作的语言质量。在考场上,他们往往也是提笔就在试卷上写下了自己第一时间想到的词汇,但是这种没有经过二次加工的表达,往往简单粗糙缺乏逻辑没有亮点。因此,让学生在课堂上开展改写练习,优化自己的表达是一种省时又高效的做法。

 改写练习可以在老师的启发下全班学生通过头脑风暴一起来做,也可以小组合作一起改写,最后学生进行自我改写形成定稿。我们来对比下面的一个初稿和改写稿的变化, 学生在改写稿中不仅学会让表达多样化,丰富了词汇,还让逻辑也更加严密。

 学生初稿:Tom used to play computer games, so his grades are getting worse and worse. At one time, he found it difficult to give up playing them. His teacher told him that he should put study as the most important part. With the help of teachers, he gradually found that the more he learned, the more interested he was in study. Now his parents are proud of him.

 学生改写稿: Tom used to be glued to computer games, which led to a sharp decline in his academic performance. However, he had a hard time getting rid of the addiction and felt depressed. Fortunately, his teacher encouraged him and told him he was supposed to make study a top priority. Thanks to his teacher’s timely help and guidance, Tom grew increasingly interested in study and his parents took great pride in his amazing progress.

  四、熟悉评价标准

 对于书面表达的评价标准,老师们一定要让学生熟悉了解,在与学生做共评示范的时候,我们老师要教会学生如何用下面这张表做评判,学生在同伴互评中自己要学会操作这个评价标准,经过几次流程后,这个标准将不断被学生熟悉记住,并潜移默化用这个标准去要求自己的写作,发现自己的弱项,从而进行修正和提高。

Structure

结构

1.the beginning, body and ending

2. a topic sentence + key words

Content

内容

1. the key points

2. supporting details

3. logical connection

Language

语言表达

1. grammar

2. transitional & linking words

3. varied and appropriate language

Handwriting

书写

neat and clean

 

   五、初三写作课标准流程

  第一课时   Pre-writing → Writing

  第二课时   Assessment → Proofreading & appreciation

  第三课时   Feedback →Rewriting 

 具体来讲 第一课时,也就是pre-writing阶段,老师要带领学生一起审题,按照what to write, whom to write to how to write的方面让学生做好写的准备,我们常常让学生brain stormcollect ideasaccumulate related expressions, 并在合理性,恰当性重要性的原则下去选择写哪些内容,给学生的输出搭好支架。学生再开始individual writing  

 第二课时,老师应给出这篇作文的评价标准,老师可以先用不同水平层次的文章来做示范,再到学生的互评,完成同伴的proofreading & appreciation。课后老师把学生作文收起来,收集问题,整理出该作文的好词好句

 第三课时,老师给出feedback集中讲评普遍出现的问题,跟学生分享该次作文中出现的优秀表达。最后再让学生rewrite进行二次改写感悟提升。

 当然由于三时间紧,任务重,老师可以根据每次作文的难度,时间和流程上进行适当的调整。希望我们的这种操作能让同学的英语写作有个质的飞跃。




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